Private Helicopter PTS

From
Jump to: navigation, search

Contents

1 General Information

The flight standards division of Shergood Aviation as developed this test book to assist students, instructors and examiners in the conduct of practical tests for private pilot helicopter in the Shergood system. Flight instructors should use the book to help prepare applicants for practical tests. Applicants should be familiar with the this book and refer to these standards during their training.

1.1 Prerequisites

Applicants for a Private Helicopter rating in the Shergood system must meet the following qualifications:

  1. Must have logged at least 10 hours of total flight time in a Shergood helicopter (with full realism enabled, and advanced weather enabled when available)
  2. Must have logged at least 3 hours of dual flight time in a Shergood helicopter in the previous 60 days
  3. Must have a recommendation from a helicopter flight instructor
  4. In the event this is a retest after a failure, has received remedial instruction from an instructor.

1.2 Special Emphasis Areas

Examiners shall place special emphasis upon certain areas of aircraft operation critical to flight safety. These shall include:

  1. Positive Aircraft Control
  2. Procedures for positive exchange of controls
  3. Collision avoidance
  4. Runway incursion avoidance
  5. Wire strike avoidance
  6. Risk management
  7. Checklist usage
  8. Adherence to all aircraft limitations

1.3 Aircraft and Equipment

The private pilot applicant is required to provide an airworthy, certificated aircraft for use during this practical test. In addition the aircraft must meet the following requirements:

  1. Have fully functioning dual controls.
  2. Be capable of performing all areas of operation appropriate to the rating sought.
  3. Have all realism settings enabled.
  4. Shall be unmodified (Official Shergood Addons may be permitted at the Examiner's Discretion)

1.4 Practical Test Procedures

The practical test shall consist of a knowledge portion and a flight portion. Generally the the test will begin with the knowledge potion and proceed to the flight portion only if the knowledge elements were satisfactory. Applicants shall be evaluated in ALL tasks listed for each area of operation.

1.5 Satisfactory Performance

Satisfactory performance is based on the applicants ability to safely:

  1. Perform each task in each area of operation within the approved standards.
  2. Demonstrate mastery of the aircraft with the successful outcome of each task never seriously in doubt.
  3. Demonstrate sound judgement and aeronautical decision making.
  4. Demonstrate single-pilot competence if the aircraft is certified for single-pilot operations.

1.6 Unsatisfactory Performance

The tolerances for each task represent the performance expected in good flying. If, in the judgement of the examiner, the applicant does not meet the standards of performance of any task performed, the area of operation is failed, and thus the practical test is failed.

The applicant or examiner may discontinue the test at any time once an area of operation has been failed. With the consent of the applicant, the test may be continue with the other areas of operation. The applicant will receive credit for all passed areas of operation. However, during the retest and at the discretion of the examiner, any task may be re-evaluated including those previously passed.

1.7 Discontinuance

When a practical test is discontinued for reasons other than unsatisfactory performance (e.g., RL interruption, equipment failure, weather, illness), then the examiner and applicant shall agree on a future time/place at which to continue the practical test. The applicant will receive credit for any tasks passed before the test was discontinued.

1.8 Privileges and Responsibilities

Holders of a private pilot helicopter certificate shall promise to:

  • Apply good airmanship in all aspects of flying.
  • Fly with full realism settings in all cases.
  • Refrain from using cheats (other than qstart/stop cheats, and maintenance cheats). Maintenance cheats will be used only when on the ground with the engine shut down.
  • Act as good citizens in the SL aviation community.
  • Not carry passengers unless the pilot has made at least three takeoffs and three landings in the past 90 days.
  • Not carry passengers or property for hire, or engage in other commercial activities. (except GTFO).
  • Obey all aircraft limitations
  • Not act as a flight instructor without an instructor rating.
  • Not fly under instrument flight rules without obtaining an instrument rating.

2 Areas of Operation

2.1 PREFLIGHT PREPARATION

2.1.1 Task A - Certificates and Documents

Objective: To determine that the applicant can explain:

  1. Private pilot certificate privileges, limitations and recent flight experience requirements.
  2. Pilot logbook or flight records
  3. Airworthiness and registration certificates
  4. Operating limitations, placards and instrument markings
  5. Weight and balance data for the aircraft

2.1.2 Task B - Weather

Objective: To determine that the applicant:

  1. Exhibits knowledge of the elements related to weather information by analyzing weather reports and charts for approved sources.
  2. Make a competent go/no-go decision based on available weather information.

2.1.3 Task C - Cross-Country Flight Planning

Objective: To determine that the applicant:

  1. Exhibits knowledge of the elements related for cross-country flight planning by presenting and explaining a pre-planned VFR cross-country flight, as previously assigned by the examiner.
  2. Selects easily identifiable route checkpoints.
  3. Selects the most favorable altitudes considering weather conditions and equipment capabilities.
  4. Computes headings, flight time and fuel requirements.
  5. Selects appropriate navigation systems.
  6. Identifies required communication frequencies along the route of flight.

2.1.4 Task D - Performance and Limitations

Objective: To determine that the applicant:

  1. Exhibits knowledge of the elements related to performance and limitations by explaining the use of charts, tables and data to determine performance and the adverse effects of exceeding limitations.
  2. Computes weight and balance. Determines the computed CG is within aircraft limitations during all phases of flight.
  3. Describes the effects of atmospheric conditions on the helicopter's performance.
  4. Understand the cause and effects of retreating blade stall.
  5. Considers the circumstances when operating within the "avoid" areas of the height/velocity diagram.

2.1.5 Task E - Operation of Systems

Objective: To determine that the applicant exhibits knowledge of the elements related to the operation of the systems on the helicopter provided for the practical test by explaining at least three of the following systems:

  1. Primary flight controls
  2. Powerplant
  3. Main rotor and anti-torque
  4. Landing gear, brakes, steering, skids or floats as applicable
  5. Fuel, oil and hydraulic
  6. Electrical
  7. Pitot-static, vacuum/pressure and associate flight instruments, if applicable
  8. Anti-icing, including carburetor heat, if applicable
  9. Avionics equipment

2.2 PREFLIGHT PROCEDURES

2.2.1 Task A - Preflight Inspection

Objective: To determine that the applicant:

  1. Exhibits knowledge of the elements related to preflight inspection. This shall include which items must be inspected, the reason for checking each item, and how to detect possible defects.
  2. Inspects the helicopter with reference to the appropriate checklist.
  3. Verifies the helicopter is in condition for safe flight.

2.2.2 Task B - Engine Stating and Rotor Engagement

Objective: To determine that the applicant:

  1. Exhibits knowledge of the elements related to correct engine starting procedures. This shall include the use of an external power source when appropriate.
  2. Positions the helicopter properly considering structures, surface conditions, other aircraft, and the safety of nearby persons and property.
  3. Utilizes the appropriate checklist for starting procedures.

Note: Applicants must perform a manual start without use of the "qstart" command. However, in the event this is a retest, or continuation after a discontinuance and a full start was previously demonstrated satisfactorily, "qstart" may be used at the discretion of the examiner.

2.2.3 Task C - Before Takeoff Check

Objective: To determine that the applicant:

  1. Exhibits knowledge related to the elements of the preflight check. This shall include the reasons for checking each item and how to detect malfunctions.
  2. Positions the helicopter properly considering environmental conditions.
  3. Properly divides attention inside and outside the cockpit/
  4. Ensures that all engine instruments are suitable for runup and takeoff.
  5. Avoids runway incursions and ensures no conflict with traffic prior to takeoff.

2.3 AIRPORT OPERATIONS

2.3.1 Task A - Radio Communications

Objective: To determine that the applicant:

  1. Exhibits knowledge of the elements related to radio communications
  2. Selects appropriate frequencies
  3. Transmits using recommended phraseology
  4. Acknowledges radio communications and complies with ATC instructions when appropriate.

Note: If the aircraft used for the practical test is not equipped with radios, this task should be evaluated during the knowledge portion of the practical test.

2.3.2 Task B - Traffic Patterns

Objective: To determine that the applicant:

  1. Exhibits knowledge of the elements related to traffic patterns. This shall include procedures at airports and heliports, prevention of runway incursions, and collision avoidance.
  2. Complies with proper traffic pattern procedures.
  3. Maintains proper spacing from other traffic or avoids the flow of fixed-wing aircraft.
  4. Corrects for wind drift to maintain proper ground track.
  5. Maintains orientation with runway/landing area in use.
  6. Maintains traffic pattern altitude ±100 feet and the appropriate airspeed ±10 knots.

2.3.3 Task C - Airport Signs, Markings and Lighting

Objective: To determine that the applicant:

  1. Exhibits knowledge of the elements related to airport/heliport runway and taxiway operations with emphasis on runway incursion avoidance.
  2. Properly identifies airport/heliport runway and taxiway signs, markings and lighting.

2.4 HOVERING MANEUVERS

2.4.1 Task A - Vertical Takeoff and Landing

Objective: To determine that the applicant:

  1. Exhibits knowledge of the elements related to a vertical takeoff to a hover and a landing from a hover.
  2. Ascends to and maintains recommended hovering altitude, and descends from recommended hovering altitude.
  3. If the aircraft is weather enabled, a takeoff and landing shall be demonstrated in crosswind and tailwind conditions.
  4. Maintains RPM within normal limits.
  5. Establishes recommended hovering altitude within ±½ of recommended altitude.
  6. Avoids conditions that may lead to loss of tail rotor effectiveness
  7. Maintains position within 5 meters of a designated point with no aft movement.
  8. Descends vertically within 5 meters of the designated touchdown point.
  9. Maintains specified heading ±10 degrees.

2.4.2 Task B - Slope Operations

Objective: To determine that the applicant:

  1. Exhibits knowledge of the elements related to slope operations.
  2. Selects a suitable slope, approach, and direction considering wind effect, obstacles, dynamic rollover avoidance.
  3. Properly moves toward the slope.
  4. Maintains RPM within normal limits.
  5. Makes a smooth positive descent to touch the upslope skid on the sloping surface.
  6. Maintains positive control while lowering the downslope skid or landing gear to touchdown.
  7. Recognizes if the slope is too steep and abandons the operation prior to reaching cyclic control stops.
  8. Makes a smooth transition from the slope to a stabilized hover.
  9. Properly moves away from the slope.
  10. Maintains specified heading throughout the maneuver within ±10 degrees.

2.4.3 Task C - Surface Taxi

NOTE: This task applies only to helicopters equipped with wheel-type landing gear.

Objective: To determine that the applicant:

  1. Exhibits knowledge of the elements related to surface taxiing.
  2. Surface taxies the helicopter from one point to another with the landing gear in contact with the surface avoiding conditions that might lead to loss of tail rotor effectiveness. If the helicopter supports advanced weather, demonstrates this in crosswind and tailwind conditions.
  3. Properly uses cyclic, collective and brakes to control speed while taxiing.
  4. Maintains RPM within normal limits.
  5. Maintains appropriate speed for existing conditions.
  6. Stops helicopter within 5m of a specified point.
  7. Maintains specified track within 5m.

2.4.4 Task D - Hover Taxi

Objective: To determine that the applicant:

  1. Exhibits knowledge of the elements related to hover taxiing.
  2. Hover taxies over the specified ground references, demonstrating forward, sideward and rearward hovering and hovering turns.
  3. Maintains RPM within specified limits.
  4. Maintains ground track within 5m of a designated reference on straight legs.
  5. Maintains constant rate of turn at pivot points.
  6. Maintains position within 5m at each pivot point during turns.
  7. Makes a 360 degree pivoting turn left and right, stopping within 10 degrees of a specified heading.
  8. Maintains recommended hovering altitude within ±½ of that altitude.

2.4.5 Task E - Air Taxi

Objective: To determine that the applicant:

  1. Exhibits knowledge of the elements related to air taxiing.
  2. Air taxies the helicopter from one point to another. If the aircraft supports advanced weather, this will be demonstrated in headwind and crosswind conditions.
  3. Maintains RPM within normal limits.
  4. Selects a safe airspeed and altitude.
  5. Maintains desired track and groundspeed.
  6. Maintains specified altitude within ±10m.

2.5 TAKEOFFS, LANDINGS, AND GO-AROUNDS

NOTE: The examiner shall select task A,B,C,D, and at least one other task. If the helicopter is equipped with wheels, task E will also be selected.

NOTE: If calm wind conditions exist, or the helicopter is not equipped with advanced weather, the applicants knowledge of crosswind elements shall be evaluated through oral testing.

2.5.1 Task A - Normal Takeoff and Climb

Objective: To demonstrate that the applicant:

  1. Exhibits knowledge of the elements related to normal and crosswind takeoffs and climbs.
  2. Establishes a stationary position on the surface or a stabilized hover.
  3. Maintains RPM within normal limits.
  4. Accellerates to the recommended climb airspeed ±10 knots.
  5. Maintains proper ground track throughout the maneuver.

2.5.2 Task B - Normal Approach

Objective: To demonstrate that the applicant:

  1. Exhibits knowledge of the elements related to normal and crosswind approach.
  2. Considers the wind conditions, landing surface and obstacles.
  3. Selects a suitable touchdown point.
  4. Establishes and maintains the normal approach angle, and proper rate of closure.
  5. Avoids situations that may result in settling-with-power.
  6. Maintains proper ground track.
  7. Arrives over touchdown point, on the surface or at a stabilized hover within ±10m.
  8. Completes any prescribed checklists if appropriate.

2.5.3 Task C - Maximum Performance Takeoff and Climb

Objective: To demonstrate that the applicant:

  1. Exhibits knowledge of the elements related to a steep approach.
  2. Considers situations where this maneuver is recommended and factors related to a steep approach, to include height/velocity information.
  3. Maintains RPM within normal limits.
  4. Utilizes the maximum available takeoff power.
  5. After clearing all obstacles, transitions to normal climb attitude, airspeed within ±10 knots, and power setting.
  6. Maintains proper ground track with crosswind correction if necessary.

2.5.4 Task D - Steep Approach

Objective: To demonstrate that the applicant:

  1. Exhibits knowledge of the elements related to a steep approach.
  2. Considers situations where this maneuver is recommended and factors related to a steep approach, to include height/velocity information.
  3. Selects a suitable termination point.
  4. Maintains RPM within normal limits.
  5. Establishes and maintains a steep approach angle and proper rate of closure.
  6. Maintains proper ground track with crosswind correction, if necessary.
  7. Arrives at the termination point, on the surface or at a stabilized hover within ±5m.

2.5.5 Task E - Rolling Takeoff

NOTE: This task applies only to helicopters equipped with wheel-type landing gear.

Objective: To demonstrate that the applicant:

  1. Exhibits knowledge of the elements related to a rolling takeoff.
  2. Considers situations where this maneuver is recommended and factors related to takeoff and climb performance, to include height/velocity information.
  3. Maintains RPM within normal limits.
  4. Utilized proper preparatory technique prior to takeoff.
  5. Initiates forward accelerating movement on the surfaces.
  6. Transitions to a normal climb with airspeed ±10 knots, and appropriate power setting.
  7. Maintains proper ground track.
  8. Completes the prescribed checklist, when applicable.

2.5.6 Task F - Confined Area Operation

Objective: To demonstrate that the applicant:

  1. Exhibits knowledge of the elements related to confined area operations.
  2. Accomplishes a proper high and low reconnaissance.
  3. Selects a suitable approach path, termination point, and departure path.
  4. Tracks the selects approach path at an acceptable approach angle and rate of closure to the termination point.
  5. Maintains RPM within normal limits.
  6. Avoids situations that can result in settling-with-power.
  7. Terminates at a hover on the surface, as conditions allow.
  8. Accomplishes a proper ground reconnaissance.
  9. Selects a suitable takeoff point, considers factors affecting takeoff and climb performance.

2.5.7 Task G - Pinnacle/Platform Operation

Objective: To demonstrate that the applicant:

  1. Exhibits knowledge of the elements related to pinnacle/platform operations.
  2. Accomplishes a proper high and low reconnaissance.
  3. Selects a suitable approach path, termination point and departure path.
  4. Tracks the selects approach path at an acceptable approach angle and rate of closure to the termination point.
  5. Maintains RPM within normal limits.
  6. Terminates at a hover or on the surface as conditions allow.
  7. Accomplishes a proper ground reconnaissance.
  8. Selects a suitable takeoff point, considers factors affecting takeoff and climb performance under various conditions.

2.5.8 Task H - Shallow Approach and Running Landing

Objective: To demonstrate that the applicant:

  1. Exhibits knowledge of the elements related to shallow approach and running/roll-on landing, including the purpose of the maneuver.
  2. Maintains RPM within normal limits.
  3. Considers obstacles and other hazards.
  4. Establishes and maintains the recommended approach angle and rate of closure.
  5. Maintains proper ground track.
  6. Maintains a speed with will take advantage of effective translational lift during surface contact with the landing gear parallel to the ground track.
  7. Utilized proper flight control technique after surface contact.
  8. Completes prescribed checklists if appropriate.

2.5.9 Task I - Go-Around

Objective: To demonstrate that the applicant:

  1. Exhibits knowledge of the elements related to a go-around and when it is necessary.
  2. Makes a timely decision to discontinue the approach to a landing.
  3. Maintains RPM within normal limits.
  4. Establishes proper control input to stop the descent and initiate a climb.
  5. Retracts the landing gear, if applicable, after a positive rate of climb indication.
  6. Maintains proper ground track.
  7. Transitions to a normal climb airspeed ±10 knots.
  8. Completes prescribed checklists if appropriate.

2.6 PERFORMANCE MANEUVER

NOTE: The examiner shall select Task A and at least one other task.

2.6.1 Task A - Rapid Deceleration

Objective: To determine that the applicant:

  1. Exhibits knowledge of the elements related to rapid deceleration (i.e., quickstop).
  2. Maintains RPM within normal limits.
  3. Properly coordinates all controls throughout the execution of the maneuver.
  4. Maintains an altitude that will permit safe clearance between the tail boom and the surface.
  5. Decelerates and terminates in a stationary hover at the recommended hovering altitude.
  6. Maintains heading throughout the maneuver within ±10 m.

2.6.2 Task B - Straight-In Autorotation

Objective: To determine that the applicant:

  1. Exhibits knowledge of the elements related to a straight in autorotation with a power recovery to a hover.
  2. Selects a suitable touchdown area.
  3. Initiates the maneuver at the proper point.
  4. Establishes aircraft at the proper autorotation speed ±10 knots.
  5. Maintains rotor RPM within normal limits.
  6. Utilizes proper deceleration and collective pitch application to a hover.
  7. Comes to a hover within ±20m of a designated point.

2.6.3 Task C - 180 Autorotation

Objective: To determine that the applicant:

  1. Exhibits knowledge of the elements related to a 180 degree autorotation with a power recovery to a hover.
  2. Selects a suitable touchdown area.
  3. Initiates the maneuver at the proper point.
  4. Establishes aircraft at the proper autorotation speed ±10 knots.
  5. Maintains rotor RPM within normal limits.
  6. Utilizes proper deceleration and collective pitch application to a hover.
  7. Comes to a hover within ±20m of a designated point.

2.7 NAVIGATION

2.7.1 Task A - Pilotage and Dead Reckoning

Objective: To determine that the applicant:

  1. Exhibits knowledge of the elements related to pilotage and dead reckoning.
  2. Follows the preplanned course by reference to landmarks.
  3. Navigates by means of precomputed headings, groundspeeds and elapsed time.
  4. Verifies the aircraft position within one region.
  5. Maintains the appropriate altitude ±100 feet and heading ±15 degrees.

2.7.2 Task B - Navigation Systems

Objective: To determine that the applicant:

  1. Exhibits knowledge of the elements related to radio and/or gps navigation.
  2. Demonstrates the ability to use an airborne electronic navigation system.
  3. Locates the helicopters position using the navigation system.
  4. Intercepts and tacks a given course, radial or bearing, as appropriate.
  5. Recognizes and describes the indication of station or waypoint passage.
  6. Maintains assigned altitude within ±100 feet and heading ±15 degrees.

2.7.3 Task C - Diversion

Objective: To determine that the applicant:

  1. Exhibits knowledge of the elements related to diversion.
  2. Selects an appropriate alternate airport or helicopter and route.
  3. Promptly diverts toward the alternate airport or heliport.
  4. Makes an accurate estimate of heading, groundspeed, arrival time.
  5. Maintains assigned altitude within ±100 feet and heading ±15 degrees.

2.8 EMERGENCY OPERATIONS

NOTE: Task F-J are knowledge only.

2.8.1 Task A - Power Failure at Hover

Objective: To determine that the applicant:

  1. Exhibits knowledge of the elements related to power failure at a hover.
  2. Determines that the terrain below the aircraft is suitable for a safe touchdown.
  3. Performs autorotation from a stationary or forward hover at the recommended altitude and RPM while maintains established heading within ±10 degrees.
  4. Touches down within minimum sideward movement, and no rearward movement.
  5. Exhibits orientation, division of attention, and proper planning.

2.8.2 Task B - Power Failure at Altitude

Objective: To determine that the applicant:

  1. Exhibits knowledge of the elements related to power failure altitude.
  2. Establishes an autorotation and selects a suitable landing area.
  3. Establishes and maintains autorotation speed within ±10 knots.
  4. Maintains rotor RPM within normal limits.
  5. Compensates as necessary to maintain a track to the selected landing area without undershooting or overshooting.
  6. Terminates the approach with a power recovery at a safe altitude when directed by the examiner.

2.8.3 Task C - Systems and Equipment Malfunctions

NOTE: Emergencies are to be simulated by the examiner.

Objective: To determine that the applicant:

  1. Exhibits knowledge of the elements related to causes, indications and pilot actions for various system and equipment malfunctions.
  2. Analyzes the situation and takes action, appropriate to the helicopter used in the practical test, in at least three of the following areas:
    1. engine/oil and fuel
    2. hydraulic systems
    3. electrical
    4. carburetor ice
    5. smoke and/or fire
    6. pitot static/vacuum failure
    7. rotor and/or anti-torque failure
    8. any other emergency unique the the helicopter flown

2.8.4 Task D - Settling with Power

Objective: To determine that the applicant:

  1. Exhibits knowledge of the elements related to settling-with-power.
  2. Selects an altitude that will allow recovery to be completed safely.
  3. Promptly recognizes and recovers at the onset of settling-with-power.
  4. Utilizes the appropriate recovery technique.

2.8.5 Task E - Low Rotor RPM Recovery

NOTE: At the examiner's discretion, this task may be tested orally.

Objective: To determine that the applicant:

  1. Exhibits knowledge of the elements related to low rotor RPM recovery, including the conditions that may lead to the situation.
  2. Detects the development of low rotor RPM and initiates prompt corrective action.
  3. Utilizes the appropriate recovery action.

2.8.6 Task F - Anti-torque System Failure

Objective: To determine that the applicant:

  1. Exhibits knowledge of the elements related to anti-torque system failure by describing:
    1. The aerodynamic indications of the types of possible system failures.
    2. Manufacturers recommended procedures for dealing with anti-torque failures.

2.8.7 Task G - Dynamic Rollover

Objective: To determine that the applicant:

  1. Exhibits knowledge of the elements related to the aerodynamics of dynamic rollover.
  2. Explains the preventative flight technique during takeoff, landings and slope operations.

2.8.8 Task H - Ground Resonance

Objective: To determine that the applicant:

  1. Exhibits knowledge of the elements related to a fully articulated rotor system and the aerodynamics of ground resonance.
  2. Understands the conditions that contribute to ground resonance.
  3. Explains preventative flight techniques during takeoffs and landings.

2.8.9 Task I - Low-G Conditions

Objective: To determine that the applicant:

  1. Exhibits knowledge of the elements related to low G conditions.
  2. Understands and recognizes the situations that contribute to low G conditions.
  3. Explains proper recovery techniques.

2.8.10 Task J - Emergency Equipment and Survival Gear

Objective: To determine that the applicant:

  1. Exhibits knowledge of the elements related to emergency equipment and survival gear appropriate to the helicopter utilized on the test.
  2. Identifies appropriate equipment that should be aboard the helicopter.

2.9 POSTFLIGHT PROCEDURES

2.9.1 Task A - After Landing and Securing

Objective: To determine that the applicant:

  1. Exhibits knowledge of the elements related to after-landing, parking and securing procedures.
  2. Minimizes the hazardous effects of rotor downwash during hovering.
  3. Parks in an appropriate area, considering the safety of nearby persons and property.
  4. Follows the appropriate procedure for engine shutdown.
  5. Completes the appropriate checklist.
  6. Conducts an appropriate postflight inspection and secures the aircraft.